References and Further Reading


Beisner, B. E., Haydon, D. T., and Cuddington, K. (2003). Alternative stable states in ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1(7), 376-382

Carpenter, S. R., Ludwig, D., and Brock, W. A. (1999). Management of eutrophication for lakes subject to potentially irreversible change. Ecological Applications, 9(3), 751-771

Gunderson, L. H. (2000). Ecological Resilience--In Theory and Application. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31, 425-439

Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4(1), 1–23

Moss. B. (1990) Engineering and biological approaches to the restoration from eutrophication of shallow lakes in which aquatic plant communities are important components. In: Gulati R.D., Lammens E.H.R.R., Meijer ML., van Donk E. (eds) Biomanipulation Tool for Water Management. Developments in Hydrobiology, vol 61. Springer, Dordrecht.

Scheffer, M., Carpenter, S., Foley, J. A., Folke, C., and Walker, B. (2001). Catastrophic Shifts in Ecosystems. Nature, 413(6856), 591-596

Sondergaard, M., Jensen, J. P., and Jeppesen, E. (2001). Retention and internal loading of phosphorus in shallow, eutrophic lakes. The Scientific World, 1, 427-442

Walker, B., and Salt, D. (2012). “Chapter 1: Preparing for Practice: The Essence of Resilience Thinking, Case Study 1”. Resilience Practice: Building Capacity to Absorb Disturbance and Maintain Function. Island Press, Washington D.C. 1st ed. 248 pgs.

Wilkinson, G. M., S. R. Carpenter, J. J. Cole, M. L. Pace, R. D. Batt, C. D. Buelo, and J. T. Kurtzweil. (2018). Early warning signals precede cyanobacterial blooms in multiple whole-lake experiments. Ecological Monographs, 88, 188-203.

Further Reading

Gunderson, L. H., Allen, C. R., and Holling, C. S. (2010). Foundations of Ecological Resilience. Island Press, Washington D.C. 466 pgs.

Holling, C. S. (1996). “Engineering Resilience versus Ecological Resilience”, in Engineering Within Ecological Constraints pgs. 31–44. National Academy Press, Washington D.C. 224 pgs.

Liao, K. A. (2012). Theory on Urban Resilience to Floods—A Basis for Alternative Planning Practices. Ecology and Society, 17(4), 48

Resilience Alliance. (2012). “Resilience.” Accessed 17 Dec 2018.

Rocha, J., Biggs, R. O., Peterson, G., and Carpenter, S. “Freshwater Eutrophication.” In: Regime Shifts Database, Last revised 2017-01-23 08:58:21 GMT.

Turner, M. G., and Gardner, R. H. (2015). “Chapter 9: Landscape Dynamics in a Rapidly Changing World”. Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice: Pattern and Process. Springer, New York. 2nd ed. 482 pgs.

Walker, B., Holling, C. S., Carpenter, S. R., and Kinzig, A. (2004). Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in Social–Ecological Systems. Ecology and Society, 9(2), 5