The Process of Plant Genetic Engineering

The entire genetic engineering process is basically the same for any plant. The length of time required to complete all five steps from start to finish varies depending upon the gene, crop species, and available resources. It can take anywhere from 6-15+ years before a new transgenic hybrid is ready for release to be grown in production fields.

Crop genetic engineering includes: 1) DNA isolation 2) gene cloning 3) gene design 4) transformation, and 5) plant breeding. (Image by P. Hain)