Aparición de resistencia a herbicidas, en una población de malezas Glossary

anuales

Living or growing for only one year or season.

adultas

A fully grown, mature organism.

aminoácidos

The basic building blocks of proteins. The sequence of amino acids in a protein and protein function are determined by the genetic code.

anual

Living or growing for only one year or season.

barbecho

The practice of leaving land either uncropped and weed-free, or with volunteer vegetation during at least one period when a crop would normally be grown; objective may be to control weeds, accumulate water, and/or available plant nutrients.

dinámica

Something that changes or moves; not static or stationary.

enzima

A protein that catalyzes, or speeds up, a specific biochemical reaction without changing the nature of the reaction.

especie

A fundamental category of taxonomic classification, ranking below a genus or subgenus and consisting of related organisms capable of interbreeding.

estructura

The combination or arrangement of soil particles that forms peds or aggregates.

frecuencia

A measure of the number of times per second (units of sec-1) that the electric field in a photon vibrates.

genes

The fundamental unit of heredity that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. A gene is an ordered sequence of nucleotides located on a particular position on a particular chromosome that encodes a specific functional protein.

germinación

Process in which seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow.

herbicida

A pesticide used to kill plants.

la resistencia a un herbicida

The inherited ability of a plant to survive and reproduce following exposure to a dose of herbicide normally lethal to the wild type. In a plant, resistance may be naturally occurring or induced by such techniques as genetic engineering or selection of variants produced by tissue culture or mutagenesis.

latencia

In a condition of biological rest or inactivity characterized by cessation of growth or development and the suspension of many metabolic processes.

modo de acción

How a herbicide affects a plant including uptake, translocation and general effect on a plant.

modosde acción

The method by which an organism is affected, damaged or killed. The mode of action usually involves a chemical reaction instigated by another source. (herbicide, etc.).

mutación

Any change in a DNA sequence.

Normal

Frequency distribution whose plot is bell-shaped and symmetrical.

plántulas

A young plant that is grown from a seed.

postemergente

Application of a herbicide after the plant has emerged.

presión de selección

The process that changes the relative frequency of one or more genes within a population.

resistencia

The ability of an organism to survive and thrive in the presence of something that would normally cause damage or death, i.e., herbicide-resistant corn, Roundup-ready corn.

resistencia a un herbicida

The inherited ability of a plant to survive and reproduce following exposure to a dose of herbicide normally lethal to the wild type. In a plant, resistance may be naturally occurring or induced by such techniques as genetic engineering or selection of variants produced by tissue culture or mutagenesis.

resistencia-cruzada

The development of resistance of an European Corn Borer to a Bt protein as a result of resistance development to a different Bt protein even though the European Corn Borer may have never been exposed to the second protein.

resistente

The inherited ability of a plant to survive and reproduce following exposure to a dose of herbicide normally lethal to the wild type. In a plant, resistance may be naturally occurring or induced by such techniques as genetic engineering or selection of variants produced by tissue culture or mutagenesis.

resistentes

The inherited ability of a plant to survive and reproduce following exposure to a dose of herbicide normally lethal to the wild type. In a plant, resistance may be naturally occurring or induced by such techniques as genetic engineering or selection of variants produced by tissue culture or mutagenesis.

selección

A natural or artificial process that favors or induces survival and perpetuation of one kind of organism over others that die or fail to produce offspring.

selección

A natural or artificial process that favors or induces survival and perpetuation of one kind of organism over others that die or fail to produce offspring.

selectiva

A herbicide that is toxic to certain plants but harmless to others.

semilla

Ripened fertilized ovule of a flowering plant that contains an embryo and normally capable of germination.

sitio de acción

The exact binding spot of a herbicide.

Sorghum bicolor

Sorghum bicolor.  A summer annual that resembles grain sorghum and corn. It is derived from wild and/or cultivated sorghum varieties. Shattercane is a major weed problem in corn, sorghum, and soybean fields in the Central United States. (California, 2001)

Sorghum bicolor ssp. arundinaceae

Sorghum bicolor.  A summer annual that resembles grain sorghum and corn. It is derived from wild and/or cultivated sorghum varieties. Shattercane is a major weed problem in corn, sorghum, and soybean fields in the Central United States. (California, 2001)

substrato

The substance, base, or nutrient on which an organism grows, (iii) Compounds or substances that are acted upon by enzymes or catalysts and changed to other compounds in the chemical reaction. (1997. Soil Science Society of America. p. 107)

suelo

The top layer of the Earth’s surface, consisting of four major components: air, water, organic matter and mineral matter. There are three categories of soil particles--sand, silt and clay--which are called "soil separates."

susceptible

The inability to survive a herbicide at its use rate.

susceptibles

The inability to survive a herbicide at its use rate.

tolerantes

The inherent ability of a plant to survive and reproduce after herbicide treatment. This implies that there was no selection or genetic manipulation to make the plant tolerant; it is naturally tolerant.

variedad

Crop plants within a species that have the same genetic composition. Because plants in a variety are usually heterozygous, their offspring will not remain genetically pure (i.e., corn hybrid varieties).