Molecular Genetics

DNA and DNA Extraction

This lesson discusses what DNA is and how it relates to genes and chromosomes. How and why DNA is extracted in the genetic engineering process is also covered.

Electrophoresis: How scientists observe fragments of DNA

Describes gel electrophoresis and how the method is used in molecular genetic analysis.

Gene Cloning

This lesson covers the utilization of gene cloning to isolate and copy a specific gene of interest. The transformation of bacteria with plasmids containing antibiotic resistance genes to make gene libraries and the selection of bacteria colonies that contain the specific gene of interest are described.

Gene Cloning Part 1: The Mechanics of Recombinant DNA

This lesson describes how DNA molecules can be recombined to make recombinant DNA and how special DNA molecules called plasmids allow scientists to clone genes.

Gene Cloning Part 2: Making and Screening Gene Libraries

This lesson teaches how a specific gene can be identified from among the thousands of genes that can be cloned from an organism.

Gene Expression Part 1: Reading Genes to Make Proteins

This lesson describes the steps involved in a cell as DNA sequence information is read to make RNA and RNA is read to make proteins.

Gene Expression Part 2: Expression of Herbicide Resistant ALS Genes in Plants

This lesson describes how changes in the DNA sequence of a gene can alter the synthesis of a protein and thus influence traits such as herbicide resistance.

Herbicide Resistance: Mechanisms, Inheritance, and Molecular Genetics

Explanation of the biochemical mechanisms and genetics of herbicide-resistance in weeds and the management and spread of herbicide-resistant weeds in relationship to the biochemical mechanisms and inheritance of resistance.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) laboratory technique is used in a variety of applications to make copies of a specific DNA sequence. This lesson describes how a PCR reaction works, what it accomplishes and its basic requirements for success. Examples of interpreting results are given. PCR's strengths, weaknesses and applications to plant biotechnology are explained.

Protein Detection in Plants

This lesson will focus on molecular principles involved in the detection of biotechnology derived proteins in crops, using the lateral flow ELISA.

Real Time PCR - Some Basic Principles

Real time PCR is a laboratory technique that can perform relatively accurate, reliable and reproducible measurements, to quantitatively determine the presence of specific gene sequences. Its value is being recognized in a variety of applications, including transgenic (GMO) detection. It is becoming increasingly important to know what percentage of a particular transgene is present in an export shipment, for example. Real time PCR can also be used to support more traditional plant breeding techniques, making the process of distinguishing allelic variations more efficient. This lesson explains the principles of real time PCR and its' application, with examples in plant breeding and GMO detection.

Overview of Plant Genetic Engineering

A general description of the overall process of genetic engineering. A basic explanation of the five steps for genetically engineering a crop is provided.

Descripción de la Ingeniería Genética

La ingeniería genética es un tipo de modificación genética que consiste en la adición dirigida de uno o mas genes ajenos al genoma de un organismo. Un gen posee la información que dará a un organismo una característica específica.