ECM of Urban Land - Impoundments and Wetlands
Impoundments are man-made ponds or lakes constructed to control storm run-off and/or trap sediments. Before soil or sediment reach the drainage system, detention ponds can be placed to trap and settle sediments. This in effect is NOT an erosion preventive measure but a measure to minimize the already detached or eroded soil from entering waterways. It is a sediment control measure. There are two kinds of impoundments: permanent ones called retention ponds and temporary ones called detention ponds.
A good example of a retention pond is Holmes Lake, which receives storm sewer water and runoff from the City of Lincoln. Holmes Lake serves to retain sediments before the water drains into Antelope Creek, Salt Creek, and eventually into the Platte River. Click Here for a Geographical Map of Holmes Lake
Detention ponds are small in area because they drain a relatively smaller area. Because construction changes the topography, or lay of the land, drainage characteristics of the land change. Detention ponds are often constructed during road or building construction because the removal of topsoil and compaction reduces water infiltration into the soil and increases the risk of runoff. In addition, paved roads and streets are impervious to water and often become a conduit for runoff and sediment to move into drainage systems.
Wetlands are areas that are frequently saturated by surface water or groundwater, staying wet at least part of the year (i.e., swamps, bogs, fens, marshes, and estuaries). Wetlands are often natural but can also be constructed. Wetlands are effective at controlling sediment and filtering nutrients and other chemical pollutants because they are a biologically active system.