References and Further Reading


Gunderson, L. H., Allen, C. R., and Holling, C. S. (2010). Foundations of Ecological Resilience. Island Press, Washington D.C. 466 pgs.

Holling, C. S. (1996). “Engineering Resilience versus Ecological Resilience”, in Engineering Within Ecological Constraints pgs. 31–44. National Academy Press, Washington D.C. 224 pgs.

Liao, K. A. (2012). Theory on Urban Resilience to Floods—A Basis for Alternative Planning Practices. Ecology and Society, 17(4), 48

Resilience Alliance. (2012). “Resilience.” Accessed 17 Dec 2018.

Rocha, J., Biggs, R. O., Peterson, G., and Carpenter, S. “Freshwater Eutrophication.” In: Regime Shifts Database, Last revised 2017-01-23 08:58:21 GMT.

Turner, M. G., and Gardner, R. H. (2015). “Chapter 9: Landscape Dynamics in a Rapidly Changing World”. Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice: Pattern and Process. Springer, New York. 2nd ed. 482 pgs.

Walker, B., Holling, C. S., Carpenter, S. R., and Kinzig, A. (2004). Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in Social–Ecological Systems. Ecology and Society, 9(2), 5

Further Reading

Angeler, D. G., & Allen, C. R. (2016). Quantifying resilience. Journal of Applied Ecology, 53(3), 617–624.

Beisner, B. E., Haydon, D. T., & Cuddington, K. (2003). Alternative Stable States in Ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1(7), 376–382.

Hobbs, W. O., Hobbs, J. M. R., Lafrançois, T., Zimmer, K. D., Theissen, K. M., Edlund, M. B., Michelutti, N., Butler, M. G., Hanson, M. A., & Carlson, T. J. (2012). A 200-year perspective on alternative stable state theory and lake management from a biomanipulated shallow lake. Ecological Applications, 22(5), 1483–1496.

Scheffer, M., Carpenter, S., Foley, J. A., Folke, C., & Walker, B. (2001). Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature, 413(6856), 591–596.

Schröder, A., Persson, L., & De Roos, A. M. (2005). Direct experimental evidence for alternative stable states: a review. Oikos, 110(1), 3–19.

Turner, M. G., & R. H. Gardner. (2015). Introduction to landscape ecology and scale. J. Slobodien (Ed.), Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice (pp. 1-32). New York, NY: Springer.

Walker, B., & Salt, D. (2006). Resilience Thinking: Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World. Washington, D.C: Island Press.

Continuing Your Learning

Want to learn more about ecological resilience? Check out the full collection of ecological resilience lessons in PASSeL!